El-Osta A, Webber D, Gnani S, Banarsee R, Mummery D, Majeed A, et al. The self-care matrix: a unifying framework for self-care. Self-Care. 2019;10:38–56.
World Health Organization. Monitoring Health for the SDGs. 2018.
World Health Organization. Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
Loef M, Walach H. The combined effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors on all cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2012;55(3):163–70.
Ford ES, Bergmann MM, Kroger J, Schienkiewitz A, Weikert C, Boeing H. Healthy living is the best revenge: findings from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition-potsdam study. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(15):1355–62.
World Health Organization. WHO consolidated guideline on self-care interventions for health: sexual and reproductive health and rights. 2019.
WHO, Secretariate WG, Logie C, Guideline Development G, Group WHOGS, Committee WHOGR. WHO consolidated guideline on self-care interventions for health: sexual and reproductive health and rights. World Health Organization 2019. 2019.
World Health Organization. Self care for health. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia. 2014.
Urpi-Fernandez AM, Zabaleta-Del-Olmo E, Montes-Hidalgo J, Tomas-Sabado J, Roldan-Merino JF, Lluch-Canut MT. Instruments to assess self-care among healthy children: A systematic review of measurement properties. J Adv Nurs. 2017;73(12):2832–44.
Webber D, Guo Z, Mann S. Self-care in health: we can define it, but should we also measure it? SelfCare Journal. 2013;4(5):101–6.
Godfrey CM, Harrison MB, Lysaght R, Lamb M, Graham ID, Oakley P. Care of self – care by other – care of other: the meaning of self-care from research, practice, policy and industry perspectives. Int J Evid Based Healthc. 2011;9(1):3–24.
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Role of self-care in management of diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2013;12(1):14.
Self Care Forum. What do we mean by self care and why is it good for people? 2018.
El-Osta A, Webber D, Gnani S, Banarsee R, Mummery D, Majeed A, et al. The Self-Care Matrix: a unifying framework for self-care. SelfCare. 2019;10(3):38–56.
Christofield M, Moon P, Allotey P. Navigating paradox in self-care. BMJ Glob Health. 2021;6(6):e005994.
NHS. Measuring supported selfmanagement – Five steps to help teams choose approaches. 2021.
National Health Service. Patient Activation. Available from: https://www.england.nhs.uk/ourwork/patient-participation/self-care/patient-activation/.
Commission E, Centre JR, Joossens E, Zec S, Manca A. Measuring and understanding individual resilience across the EU: Publications Office of the European Union. 2022.
Hibbard JH, Mahoney ER, Stockard J, Tusler M. Development and testing of a short form of the patient activation measure. Health Serv Res. 2005;40(6p1):1918–30.
Caro-Bautista J, Martin-Santos FJ, Morales-Asencio JM. Systematic review of the psychometric properties and theoretical grounding of instruments evaluating self-care in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Adv Nurs. 2014;70(6):1209–27.
Han HR, Song HJ, Nguyen T, Kim MT. Measuring self-care in patients with hypertension: a systematic review of literature. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2014;29(1):55–67.
Matarese M, Lommi M, De Marinis MG. Systematic review of measurement properties of self-reported instruments for evaluating self-care in adults. J Adv Nurs. 2017;73(6):1272–87.
Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O’Brien KK, Colquhoun H, Levac D, et al. PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation. Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(7):467–73.
International Self-Care Foundation. The seven pillars of self-care framework. Available from: http://isfglobal.org/seven-pillars-self-care-framework/.
Remington M, Tyrer P. The social functioning schedule — A brief semi-structured interview. Soc Psychiatry. 1979;14(3):151–7.
Whitehall L, Górska S, Rush R, Singh Roy A, Irvine Fitzpatrick L, Forsyth K. Psychometric evaluation of the making it CLEAR questionnaire: a resilience measure for older adults. Innov Aging. 2021;5(3):igab030.
Dale B, Saevareid HI, Soderhamn O. Testing reliability and validity of Lorensen’s Self-care Capability Scale (LSCS) among older home-living, care-dependent individuals in Norway. Int J Older People Nurs. 2013;8(2):166–73.
Lorensen M. Psychometric properties of self-care management and life-quality amongst elderly. Clin Eff Nurs. 1998;2(2):78–84.
Alhambra-Borras T, Dura-Ferrandis E, Garces-Ferrer J, Sanchez-Garcia J. The Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale – Revised (ASA-R): adaptation and validation in a sample of spanish older adults. Span J Psychol. 2017;20:E48.
Räsänen P, Backman K, Kyngäs H. Development of an instrument to test the middle-range theory for the self-care of home-dwelling elderly. Scand J Caring Sci. 2007;21(3):397–405.
Evers GCM, Isenberg MA, Philipsen H, Senten M, Brouns G. Validity testing of the Dutch translation of the appraisal of the self-care agency A.S.A-scale. Int J Nurs Stud. 1993;30(4):331–42.
Eikelenboom N, Smeele I, Faber M, Jacobs A, Verhulst F, Lacroix J, et al. Validation of Self-Management Screening (SeMaS), a tool to facilitate personalised counselling and support of patients with chronic diseases. BMC Fam Pract. 2015;16(1):165.
Luciani M, De Maria M, Page SD, Barbaranelli C, Ausili D, Riegel B. Measuring self-care in the general adult population: development and psychometric testing of the Self-Care Inventory. BMC Public Health. 2022;22(1):598.
Gusi N, Olivares PR, Rajendram R. The EQ-5D health-related quality of life questionnaire. In: Preedy VR, Watson RR, editors. Handbook of disease burdens and quality of life measures. Springer New York: New York; 2010. p. 87–99.
Martínez M, Luis EO, Oliveros EY, Fernández-Berrocal P, Sarrionandia A, Vidaurreta M, et al. Validity and reliability of the Self-Care Activities Screening Scale (SASS-14) during COVID-19 lockdown. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2021;19(1):1.
Riegel B, Barbaranelli C, Sethares KA, Daus M, Moser DK, Miller JL, et al. Development and initial testing of the self-care of chronic illness inventory. J Adv Nurs. 2018;74(10):2465–76.
Marshall SC, Heisel B, Grinnell D. Validity of the pulses profile compared with the functional independence measure for measuring disability in a stroke rehabilitation setting. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(7):760–5.
Wade DT, Collin C. The Barthel ADL Index: a standard measure of physical disability? Int Disabil Stud. 1988;10(2):64–7.
Linn MW. A rapid disability rating scale. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1967;15(2):211–4.
Linn MW. Physical and Mental Impairment-of-Function Evaluation (PAMIE). Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988;24(4):755–7.
Iversen IA. The revised Kenny Self-Care Evaluation: a numerical measure of independence in activities of daily living: Sister Kenny Institute; 1973.
Chambers LW. The McMaster health index questionnaire: an update. quality of life assessment: key issues in the 1990s: Springer; 1993. p. 131–49.
Tyrer P, Nur U, Crawford M, Karlsen S, MacLean C, Rao B, et al. The social functioning questionnaire: a rapid and robust measure of perceived functioning. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2005;51(3):265–75.
Kearney BY, Fleischer BJ. Development of an instrument to measure exercise of self-care agency. Res Nurs Health. 1979;2(1):25–34.
Andrews DR, Richard D, Aroian K. Factor Structure of the Denyes Self Care Practice Instrument (DSCPI-90©). West J Nurs Res. 2009;31(6):799–811.
Eddings M. Self-care agency and self-care practice of adult african americans with type 2 diabetes. 2012.
Shah S, Vanclay F, Cooper B. Improving the sensitivity of the Barthel Index for stroke rehabilitation. J Clin Epidemiol. 1989;42(8):703–9.
McDowell I. Measuring health: a guide to rating scales and questionnaires: Oxford University Press, USA; 2006.
Bottorff JL. Assessing an instrument in a pilot project: the self-care agency questionnaire. 1988. 1988.
Weaver MT. Perceived self-care agency: A LISREL factor analysis of bickel and hanson’s questionnaire. Nurs Res. 1987;36(6):381–7.
Linn MW, Linn BS. The rapid disability rating scale—2. 1982;30(6):378–82.
Holm MB, Rogers JC, Hemphill-Pearson B. The performance assessment of self-care skills (PASS). Assessments in occupational therapy mental health. 2008;2:101-10
Linacre JM, Heinemann AW, Wright BD, Granger CV, Hamilton BB. The structure and stability of the functional independence measure. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994;75(2):127–32.
Geden E, Taylor S. Construct and empirical validity of the Self-As-Carer Inventory. Nurs Res. 1991;40(1):47–50.
Lukkarinen H, Hentinen M. Self-care agency and factors related to this agency among patients with coronary heart disease. Int J Nurs Stud. 1997;34(4):295–304.
Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): I. conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care. 1992;30(6):473–83.
Walker SN, Sechrist KR, Pender NJ. Health promotion model-instruments to measure health promoting lifestyle: Health-promoting lifestyle profile [HPLP II](Adult version). 1995.
Lev EL, Owen SV. A measure of self-care self-efficacy. Res Nurs Health. 1996;19(5):421–9.
Süderhamn O, Ek AC, Pürn I. The self-care ability scale for the elderly. Scan J Occup Ther. 1996;3(2):69–78.
Seiber WJ, Groessl EJ, David KM, Ganiats TG, Kaplan RM. Quality of well being self-administered (QWB-SA) scale. 2008.
Hibbard JH, Stockard J, Mahoney ER, Tusler M. Development of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM): conceptualizing and measuring activation in patients and consumers. 2004;39(4p1):1005–26.
Sidani S, Doran DIJC. Development and validation of a self-care ability measure Can. J Nurs Res. 2014;46(1):11–25.
Cook-Cottone CP, Guyker WM. The Development and Validation of the Mindful Self-Care Scale (MSCS): an Assessment of Practices that Support Positive Embodiment. Mindfulness. 2018;9(1):161–75.
Wolf MS, Smith SG, Pandit AU, Condon DM, Curtis LM, Griffith J, et al. Development and validation of the consumer health activation index. Med Decis Making. 2018;38(3):334–43.
Yu DSF, De Maria M, Barbaranelli C, Vellone E, Matarese M, Ausili D, et al. Cross-cultural applicability of the Self-Care Self-Efficacy Scale in a multi-national study. J Adv Nurs. 2021;77(2):681–92.
Richard AA, Shea K. Delineation of self-care and associated concepts. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2011;43(3):255–64.
Wilkinson A, Whitehead L. Evolution of the concept of self-care and implications for nurses: a literature review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46(8):1143–7.
Yach D, Hawkes C, Gould CL, Hofman KJ. The global burden of chronic diseases: overcoming impediments to prevention and control. JAMA. 2004;291(21):2616–22.
Paulhus DL, Lysy DC, Yik MSN. Self-report measures of intelligence: Are they useful as proxy IQ tests? J Pers. 1998;66(4):525–54.
El-Osta A, Rowe C, Majeed A. Developing a shared definition of self-driven healthcare to enhance the current healthcare delivery paradigm. J R Soc Med. 2022;115(11):424–8.
Broemeling AM, Watson DE, Prebtani F. Population patterns of chronic health conditions, co-morbidity and healthcare use in Canada: implications for policy and practice. Healthc Q. 2008;11(3):70–6.
Neumann PJ, Cohen JT. Cost savings and cost-effectiveness of clinical preventive care. Synth Proj Res Synth Rep. 2009(18).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention.
El-Osta A, Woringer M, Pizzo E, Verhoef T, Dickie C, Ni MZ, et al. Does use of point-of-care testing improve cost-effectiveness of the NHS Health Check programme in the primary care setting? A cost-minimisation analysis. BMJ Open. 2017;7(8):e015494.
El-Osta A, Riboli-Sasco E, Kerr G, Sathaymoorthy G, Brooks Z, Fraser J, et al. Evaluation of BP@Home Initiative (pan-London): key findings from mixed methods evaluation. 2022.
Bertram MY, Chisholm D, Watts R, Waqanivalu T, Prasad V, Varghese C. Cost-effectiveness of population level and individual level interventions to combat non-communicable disease in Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: A WHO-CHOICE Analysis. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2021;10(11):724–33.
Nutbeam D. Health literacy as a public health goal: a challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century. Health Promot Int. 2000;15(3):259–67.
Dewalt DA, Berkman ND, Sheridan S, Lohr KN, Pignone MP. Literacy and health outcomes: a systematic review of the literature. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19(12):1228–39.
Berkman ND, Sheridan SL, Donahue KE, Halpern DJ, Crotty K. Low health literacy and health outcomes: an updated systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(2):97–107.
Barros A, Santos H, Santos-Silva F. A Systematic Review of Health Literacy Measurement Instruments in Portugal. Portuguese Journal of Public Health. 2022.
International Self-Care Foundation. Pillar 6 good hygiene 2018. Available from: http://isfglobal.org/practise-self-care/pillar-6-good-hygiene/.
Curtis V, Cairncross S. Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3(5):275–81.
Rabie T, Curtis V. Handwashing and risk of respiratory infections: a quantitative systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11(3):258–67.
Fairchild AL, Rosner D, Colgrove J, Bayer R, Fried LP. The EXODUS of public health what history can tell us about the future. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(1):54–63.
Bloomfield SF AL, Bockmühl D, S et al. Containing the burden of infectious diseases is everyone’s responsibility. A call for an integrated strategy for developing and promoting hygiene behaviour change in home and everyday life. The International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene; 2018.
Shechter A, Kim EW, St-Onge MP, Westwood AJ. Blocking nocturnal blue light for insomnia: A randomized controlled trial. J Psychiatr Res. 2018;96:196–202.
Tavassoli N, de Souto BP, Berbon C, Mathieu C, de Kerimel J, Lafont C, et al. Implementation of the WHO integrated care for older people (ICOPE) programme in clinical practice: a prospective study. The Lancet Healthy Longevity. 2022;3(6):e394–404.
Palmer BW, Harmell AL. Assessment of healthcare decision-making capacity. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2016;31(6):530–40.
El-Osta A. Evaluation of Self-Care Initiatives: The Self-Care Capability Assessment (CAPITAN) Toolkit. https://www.imperial.ac.uk/school-public-health/primary-care-and-public-health/research/scaru/evaluation/: Imperial College London; 2019
Arksey H, O’Malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2005;8(1):19–32.
Mokkink LB, Prinsen CA, Bouter LM, Vet HC, Terwee CB. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) and how to select an outcome measurement instrument. Braz J Phys Ther. 2016;20(2):105–13.
Valderas JM, Ferrer M, Mendívil J, Garin O, Rajmil L, Herdman M, et al. Development of EMPRO: a tool for the standardized assessment of patient-reported outcome measures. Value in Health. 2008;11(4):700–8.
Rosenkoetter U, Tate RL. Assessing features of psychometric assessment instruments: a comparison of the COSMIN checklist with other critical appraisal tools. Brain Impairment. 2018;19(1):103–18.
Denyes MJ. Development of an instrument to measure self-care agency in adolescents: University of Michigan; 1980.
Biagioli V, Spitaletta G, Kania V, Mascolo R, Gawronski O, Liburdi A, et al. Instruments measuring self-care in children and young adults with chronic conditions: a systematic review. Front Pediatr. 2022;10:832453.