Cases of maternal near miss are those in which women survive severe maternal complications during pregnancy or the puerperium. This ecological study aimed to identify the temporal trend of near-miss cases in different regions of Brazil between 2010 and 2018, using data from the Hospital Information System (HIS) of the Unified Brazilian Health System (SUS, in the Portuguese acronym). Hospital admission records of women between 10 and 49 years old with diagnosis included in the 10 Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) and codes indicating near-miss events were selected. From 20,891,040 admissions due to obstetric causes, 766,249 (3.66%) near-miss cases were identified, and 31,475 women needed admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). The cases were found to be more predominant in black women over 35 years old from the North and Northeast regions. There was a trend of increase in near-miss rates of ∼ 13.5% a year during the period of the study. The trend presented a different behavior depending on the level of development of the region studied. The main causes of near miss were preeclampsia (47%), hemorrhage (24%), and sepsis (18%).